What’s with the smell?

smoke stacks at night
health symptoms infographic
odor and health study flyer

Health, Odors, & Air Quality Carson Study

In response to health concerns of residents in and around Carson, CA in Fall of 2021, we launched a health study to assess short and longer-term impacts of the odors and hydrogen sulfide concentrations. Adult residents (18 years or older) of the Carson area are eligible for the study and may email ejresearchlab@usc.edu or call 323-647-7564 for more information. Summary findings will be shared with participants and the community. See below for resources and information on hydrogen sulfide. 

Reference Collection: Health impacts of Hydrogen Sulfide

Avery, R. C., Wing, S., Marshall, S. W., & Schiffman, S. S. (2004). Odor from industrial hog farming operations and mucosal immune function in neighbors. Arch Environ Health, 59(2), 101-108. https://doi.org/10.3200/aeoh.59.2.101-108 

Beauchamp, R. O., Jr., Bus, J. S., Popp, J. A., Boreiko, C. J., & Andjelkovich, D. A. (1984). A critical review of the literature on hydrogen sulfide toxicity. Crit Rev Toxicol, 13(1), 25-97. https://doi.org/10.3109/10408448409029321 

Horton, R. A., Wing, S., Marshall, S. W., & Brownley, K. A. (2009). Malodor as a trigger of stress and negative mood in neighbors of industrial hog operations. Am J Public Health, 99 Suppl 3(Suppl 3), S610-615. https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.2008.148924 

Jaakkola, J. J., Vilkka, V., Marttila, O., Jäppinen, P., & Haahtela, T. (1990). The South Karelia Air Pollution Study. The effects of malodorous sulfur compounds from pulp mills on respiratory and other symptoms. Am Rev Respir Dis, 142(6 Pt 1), 1344-1350. https://doi.org/10.1164/ajrccm/142.6_Pt_1.1344 

Jäppinen, P., Vilkka, V., Marttila, O., & Haahtela, T. (1990). Exposure to hydrogen sulphide and respiratory function. Br J Ind Med, 47(12), 824-828. https://doi.org/10.1136/oem.47.12.824 

Legator, M. S., Singleton, C. R., Morris, D. L., & Philips, D. L. (2001). Health effects from chronic low-level exposure to hydrogen sulfide. Arch Environ Health, 56(2), 123-131. https://doi.org/10.1080/00039890109604063 

Radon, K., Schulze, A., Ehrenstein, V., van Strien, R. T., Praml, G., & Nowak, D. (2007). Environmental exposure to confined animal feeding operations and respiratory health of neighboring residents. Epidemiology, 18(3), 300-308. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.ede.0000259966.62137.84 

Schiffman, S. S., Studwell, C. E., Landerman, L. R., Berman, K., & Sundy, J. S. (2005). Symptomatic effects of exposure to diluted air sampled from a swine confinement atmosphere on healthy human subjects. Environ Health Perspect, 113(5), 567-576. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.6814 

Schinasi, L., Horton, R. A., Guidry, V. T., Wing, S., Marshall, S. W., & Morland, K. B. (2011). Air pollution, lung function, and physical symptoms in communities near concentrated Swine feeding operations. Epidemiology, 22(2), 208-215. https://doi.org/10.1097/EDE.0b013e3182093c8b 

Shusterman, D. (2001). Odor-associated health complaints: competing explanatory models. Chem Senses, 26(3), 339-343. https://doi.org/10.1093/chemse/26.3.339 

Tajik, M., Muhammad, N., Lowman, A., Thu, K., Wing, S., & Grant, G. (2008). Impact of odor from industrial hog operations on daily living activities. New Solut, 18(2), 193-205. https://doi.org/10.2190/NS.18.2.i 

Wing, S., Horton, R. A., & Rose, K. M. (2013). Air pollution from industrial swine operations and blood pressure of neighboring residents. Environ Health Perspect, 121(1), 92-96. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1205109